Category Archives: Endangered Species

Endangered Species: the Bornean Orangutan (Pongo Pygmaeus)

The Bornean Orangutan is originary from this island. It lives in tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Bornean lowlands, as well as mountainous areas up to 1.500 metres above sea level.


The Bornean Orangutan is the third-heaviest living primate after the two species of gorilla, and the largest truly arboreal animal alive today. In wild, males weigh an average of 75 kg (ranging from 50 to 100 Kg.), and 1,2 to 1,4 meters long. Females average 38,5 Kg., ranging from 30 to 50 Kg,. And 1-1,2 meters long. While in captivity they use to grow considerably overweight.


The Bornean Orangutan has a distinctive body, with so long arms, which can be up to 1,5 meters. Its fur is reddish and both its hands and feet are prehensiles.


Their diet is composed of over 400 types of food, including figs, seeds, bird eggs, flowers, honey and insects, among others. They get the necessary quantities of water from both fruit and from tree holes.


Females, which reach maturity between 6 to 11 years do not give birth for the first time till they are 14-15 years old. The youngs stay some years with the mother who teach them all they need to survive, then they go their own.


Bornean Orangutans are in danger according to the IUCN red list and are included within the appendix 1 from CITES. It is estimated that only 54.500 live in the wild.

Critically Endangered

Their main threats are the fires (habitat destruction), hunting and illegal traffic of youngs as pets at the black market.

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Endangered Species: Ethiopian Wolf (Canis simensis)

The Ethiopian Wolf (Canis simensis) is the only wolf species to be found in Africa. Endemic to the Ethiopian mountains between 3200 and 4500 metres above see level it is the most threatened canid in the world.


Despite of the fact that it is closer to the grey wolf, it is more similar to a coyote in shape and size and has long legs and elongated muzzle. The Ethiopian Wolf has a reddish coat, distinctive white markings throughout the body and black markings on the tail. Males are 20% larger than females.


They live in groups between 3 and 13 adults, but they tend to forage alone. Their diet is mainly based on the giant mole-rat (Tachyoryctes macrocephalus) and other species of grass rats.


At present, the largest population (about 50% of the total) is found in the Bale Mountains National Park, where they locate in two areas: Web Valley and Sanetti Plateau.

The Ethiopian Wolf is listed as “Endangered” by the IUCN Red List:


Natural causes of mortality include predation of young by spotted hyenas or raptors, starvation in juveniles, pathogens and parasites such as rabies, and human causes.

Population decline is a result of many factors: continuous loss of habitat due to agriculture, traffic incidents and shootings, hybridization with domestic dogs, and disease.


Conservation efforts include vaccination of both domestic dogs and wild wolves from rabies, sterilization of domestic dogs and hybrids and education about the Ethiopian wolwes, among others.

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Endangered Species: The Bale Mountains Monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis)

The Bale Mountains Monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis), discovered in 1902, is one of Africa’s least known primates. As other vervet species, they are sexually dimorphic, being the males slightly larger than the females and having brightly coloured genitals.


They are diurnal and spend most of their time feeding. Their diet is mainly based on African montane or highland bamboo (Arundinaria alpina) on the wet season (77% of their diet), they also eat some fruits on the dry season. Flowers and insects are included in their diet.

Endemic to the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia, appear to almost exclusively inhabit bamboo forests, being found at high elevations of up to 3,000 meters.

The Bale Mountains Monkey is listed as “Vulnerable” by the IUCN Red List, and is listed on Appendix II of CITES.

vulnerable 2

The Bale Mountains Monkey is most threatened by habitat loss: ever increasing human populations in Ethiopia, conversión of land for agriculture, forest fires and logging are all reducing the available bamboo forests on which they depend.

The future survival of the Bale Mountains vervet depends on effective management and conservation of the bamboo forests in which it occurs.

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Endangered Species: Greater Bamboo Lemur (Prolemur simus)

The Greater Bamboo Lemur (Prolemur simus) is the largest of the 3 bamboo lemurs.


Their diet is mainly based on the giant bamboo (Cathariostachys madagascariensis). A small portion of their diet (5%) comprises other bamboo species, fruits and other foods (soil and mushrooms).

Endemic to Madagascar, nowadays this species is restricted to areas in and around Ranomafana National Park.


The destruction of the habitat is the major threat to the survival of the greater bamboo lemur. It includes both the destruction of its rainforests for slash-and-burn agriculture as well as the intensive cutting of bamboo. It is also hunted with slingshots in some areas.

It is classified as “Critically Endangered” on the IUCN list 2002 and is listed on Appendix I of CITES.

Critically Endangered

It was also included in the list of the World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates (on 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010) published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Species Survival Commission Primate Specialist Group (IUCN/SSC PSG), the International Primatological Society (IPS), and Conservation International (CI), and it has an estimated population of between 100-160 individuals.

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